The Creator’s living creature survives in the wonderful planet in common with rich diversity. Human beings are the legend organizer of the environments. Hence, it is the fundamental duty to preserve the wild life to maintain the Nature. Owing to change of human tradition and habit from primordial conventional desire to a developed feeling in “live and let live” enact laws, acts and ordinance to preserve and protect the wild life and its habitat. This is the divergence between our inception as wild and presently as cultured, but while the genetic wildness apprehends the compassion of human life, we do wrong with the wild life. However, the trend is now descending.
The concept of wildlife conservation is not new in India. Ahimsa (non-violence) is the basic ingredient of most of the Indian religions. Hindu mythology is rich with reference to wild animals, which are associated with various Gods and Goddesses as their vehicle and are thus worshipped. This creates a religious respect as well as improves the love and friendliness relation with the animals.
The earliest codified law on wildlife conservation can be traced to the 3rd century B.C. when King Asoka made a law to protect fish, game and forest. The colonial period witnessed commercial extraction of Forest wealth. The British practiced selective wildlife conservation to guard against the extinction of endanger species of that time. The Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1887 was the first law for protection of wildlife in India. The system of elephant capturing, hunting of deer etc. are also permitted after independence of India under required authority.
Wildlife conservation is an attempt to protect endangered animals and plants along with their natural habitat. The main objective of this practice is to make sure that their habitats will be preserved, so that the future generations of both wildlife and human beings can enjoy the blessings of it. It is very much essential to take actions to protect wildlife from extinction and by protecting the wildlife, we not only ensure their survival, but also the diversity of ecosystem. As a result, it will help to promote the ecological health of the earth.
According to The wildlife (Protection) Act,1972 ‘’wildlife’’ includes any animal , bees , butterflies , crustacean , fish and moths ; and aquatic or land vegetation which forms part of any habitat.
Wildlife refers to undomesticated animal species, but also includes all plants, fungi and other organisms that grow or live in forest area. Wildlife can be found in all ecosystems– plains, grasslands, deserts, mixed forests, rain forests and other areas including the most developed urban areas, all have different forms of wildlife.
Biodiversity has large numbers of potential uses for human beings but the same is now under grave threat. Loss of habitat is the most important factor responsible for the extinction of species. Their survival is inextricably linked to the overall health and stability of the ecosystem in which they live.
Wildlife plays an important role in the ecological and biological processes that are significant to the human life. The normal functioning of the biosphere depends on the endless interactions amongst animals, plants and microorganisms. Wildlife maintains ecological ‘balance of nature’ and maintains food chain and nature cycles. Most important contribution of wildlife for human progress is availability of large gene pool for the scientists to carry breeding programmes in agriculture, animal husbandry and fishery.
Law relating To Wildlife Protection for protecting wildlife from rapid depletion the prominent thinkers brought this issue in the sixties which resulted to form Wildlife (Protection) Act,1972. This Act has been amended a few time since then. In the 42nd amendment of 1976 of the constitution of India inserted two new Articles –Article 48-A and Article-51-A(g) and shifted the entry ‘wildlife’ to the Concurrent List.
The Wildlife protection is to protect wild animals, birds and plants. It was amended in 1986 and a new Chapter (V-A) was inserted, prohibited trade and commerce in trophies and animal articles . The amendment of 1991 provided greater protection to wildlife and enhanced the punishment for violations. As a result of this amendment non-officials can directly take steps for violation of the Act in the court . this amendment also bring about a complete prohibition of hunting of all specified wildlife . No new licences for hunting and trapping are to be issued and existing licences are to be cancelled . Commercial felling and exploitation of wildlife in sanctuaries has been banned. In 1995, a committee was appointed by Ministry of Environment and Forests under the direction of High Court of Delhi for making recommendation for the preservation and protection of wildlife.
According to the temperature, soil structure, forest type, rainfall, diversity of flora and fauna of the different States different Laws, Rules, Acts introduced. The Apex Court of India has passed landmark judgement in WP( C) No.202 of 1995 (T. N. Godavarman Thirumalpad vs. Union of India & Ors.) under concerned orders for conservation of forest in forest area; management and maintenance of Wild Life Sanctuary/National Park; eviction of encroachers from R.F Area/ Protected Forest Area; regarding commercial extraction of forest produces: use of forest land etc. for different States of the Union of India.
The jurisdiction of the theme is wide spreading and could not confine in limitation. One of the major problems in conservation of wildlife is the clash of interest of people and interest of wildlife. This is an issue, which needs to be dealt first to get the core of wildlife conservation problem. Anti-poaching programmes, legal support, education, awareness, creating of new wildlife sanctuaries and national parks are the effective ways for protection of wildlife. India is over populated country so the trend of urbanization in forest area for the welfare of forest dwellers is enhancing the encroachment by the extended family member of existing encroachers, forest dwellers and fringe revenue villager, consequent of which man animal conflict occurs due to encroachment in habitat area of wild life. The habitat of wild life in forestland is free from ambiguity as such it is indispensable to conserve and protect the forest area for preservation of wild life.